Introduction and cultivation of medicinal plants.
Introduction of medicinal herbs provides an introduction to the culture of wild plants both within the area and in new areas where these species do not occur. It includes two main aspects:
— the study of biologic peculiarities of plants in new conditions;
– development of a system of farming cultivation of medicinal plants;
The term “introduction” is closely linked to the notion of “acclimatization”, “naturalization” and “cultivation”.
ACCLIMATIZATION – adaptation of plants to new climatic conditions.
NATURALIZATION – the highest degree of acclimatization, during which the plant not only grows well, grows and reproduces independently, without compromising the cenoses of other species in the struggle for existence.
CULTIVATION – cultivation of medicinal plants (RL) to industrial scale according to the recommendations of agrotechnics of cultivation in the circumstances for the purpose of obtaining high quality raw materials.
Introduction is a complex process. The biological aspect includes the following questions:
– the limits of endurance of introducint;
– adaptive features (response to light, temperature, humidity soil, air, etc.);
genetic features of the plant;
– biological properties, developed by the plant as a result of continuous interaction with the environment in new conditions;
– izmeneniyakh composition of medicinal plants in the new growing conditions.
When studying agricultural methods for cultivation of plants in a new climatic conditions conduct research in the following areas:
– types of planting material – cuttings, cuttings, rhizomes, seeds, sprouts;
– preparation and processing of planting material – stratification, soaking, heating, etching, division of rhizomes;
– timing of planting – spring, summer, fall;
– depth of planting material – surface, 0,5; 1; 1,5; 2; 2,5; 3 cm, etc.;
– the area of cultivation — inter-row spacing, the distance between plants in the row.
– method of planting – private, nesting, ridge;
– the method of processing soil – ploughing, digging, digging, harrowing, mulching, hoeing;
– time tillage – spring, summer, fall;
– tilling depth from 1 cm to 30 cm;
– the timing of fertilizer application – spring, summer, fall;
– types of fertilizers: organic manure, slurry , poultry manure, torrecampo, peat, humus, silt; mineral nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), ash; micronutrient fertilizers – salts of boron, manganese, copper, molybdenum, cobalt, zinc;
– methods of fertilizer application in the soil: the main, i.e., into the soil before planting plant in autumn or spring; additional, i.e. fertilizing of plants during the summer;
– development of optimal doses of fertilizers;
– mechanization farming cultivation of medicinal plants.
Therefore, only a comprehensive study of all influencing factors and identifying dependencies among them enables to predict the effect of the introduction of this medicinal plant.
The TASK of introduction of medicinal plants:
1. A demo collection nurseries.
2. To determine the possibility of cultivation of medicinal plants in new areas with the aim of obtaining high quality raw materials for the medical industry and other sectors of the economy (food, feed).
3. Obtaining seeds or other reproductive organs for medicinal plant cultivation.
SELECTION PRINCIPLES of the Republic of Latvia for introduction and cultivation:
1. Valuable species of LR, the reserves of which in nature is reduced (ginseng, leuzea, lemongrass, etc.).
2. The RL field do not form thickets in the wild or growing in inaccessible places (Valerian, maçka yellow and other).
3. The Republic of Lebanon, growing in the wild in Russia (calendula, Foxglove purple, etc.).
4. Latvia, traditionally cultivated in the world (flax, anise, corn, mint, etc.).